Music Builds Brains

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SUBJECT
DATE
KEY POINTS OR SUMMARY SOURCE
Academic Testing
20-Sep-01
MUSIC STUDENTS CONTINUE TO OUTPERFORM THEIR NON-ARTS PEERS ON THE SAT. The College Board. "Profiles of SAT and Achievement Test Takers" 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000
Academic Testing
Sep-00
Music Instruction enhances spatial-temporal reasoning for preschool and elementary age children while instruction is occurring, and through at least two years of such instruction Lois Hetlan, Journal of Aesthetic Education, Fall/Winter 2000
Academic Testing
24-Jul-00
New Studies Support Original Findings That Music Lessons Help Improve Math Skills. In a 2000 report, Dr. Shaw (of University of California, Irvine) studied the math test scores of a group of second graders from inner-city Los Angeles who were given piano lessons twice a week for a year.  Show compared the test scores of this group to the scores of elementary school students in affluent Orange County who did not receive piano lessons.  The second graders from LA scored as well as fourth graders from Orange County.  Half of the second graders in the study scored as well as fifth-graders in Orange County. Sharon Begley, "Music On The Mind," Newsweek, July 24, 2000
Academic Testing
24-Feb-00
Children Taught With New Curriculum Combining Math and Music Score Higher on Test of Advanced Math Skills and Stanford 9 The Parent's Guide: Getting the Most Out Of Your Child's Band or Orchestral Experience, Selmer Company
Academic Testing
22-Oct-99
Arts May Improve Student's Grades. High School Students who take music lessons and join theater groups do better in math, reading, history, geography, and citizenship, according to a study of Education Department date to be published today. Carl Hartman, The Associated Press, October 22, 1999
Academic Testing
Sep-99
Music can make a difference for young people from low socioeconomic status (SES). A 1998 research study found that low SES students who took music lessons from 8th through 12th grade increased their test scores in math and scored significantly higher than those of low SES students who were not involved in music.  Math scores more than doubled, and history and geography scores climbed by 40 percent. James Catterall, Richard Chapleau, and John Iwanga. "Involvement in the Arts and Human Development: Extending and Analysis of General Associations and Introducing the Special Cases of Intensive Involvement in Music and in Theater Arts." Monograph Series No. 11, (Washington, D.C.: Americans for the Arts, Fall 1999).
Academic Testing
Jul-99
Arts Students score higher on "Thinking Skills". ( CREATIVITY-Arts 37%, Low Arts 12%. ) (FLUENCY-Arts 31%, Low Arts 17%.) (ORIGINALITY - Arts 31%, Low Arts 15%) (ELABORATION-Arts 41%, Low Arts 11%) (RESISTANCE TO CLOSURE-Arts 35%, Low Arts 16%) (EXPRESSION - Arts 37%, Low Arts 9%) (RISK TAKING - Arts 37%, Low Arts 11%) (IMAGINATION-Arts 41%, Low Arts 14%) Learning In and Through the Arts: Curriculum Implications by Judith Burton, Robert Horowitz, and Hal Abeles, from the Center for Arts Education Research Teachers College, Columbia University, July 1999. Published in the compilation "Champions of Change"
Academic Testing
15-Mar-99
Rhythm students learn fractions easier.  Researchers find music is a superior way to teach elementary students the concept of fractions. Students (2nd and 3rd graders) scored 100% higher on fractions tests who were taught using rhythm notation. Neurological Research, March 15, 1999
Academic Testing
15-Mar-99
Piano Boosts Student MathAchievement.  Taking piano lessons and using math puzzle software significantly improves math skills of elementary school children..  The findings are significant because a grasp of proportional math and fractions is a prerequisite to math at higher levels, and children who do not master these areas of math cannot understand more advanced math critical to high-tech fields. Neurological Research, March 15, 1999
Academic Testing
Mar-99
In 1998, scientists explored how a newly designed computer math game coupled with either piano lessons or English-training affected second-grade students' performance in math.  After four months, the students who had piano keyboarding along with the computer game did 27 percent better on questions devoted to fractions and proportional math than those students who received the language training with the computer game. Amy Graziano, Matthew Peterson, and Gordon Shaw, "Enhanced Learning of Proportional Math Through Music Training and Spatial-Temporal Training." Neurological Research, vol.21, no 2, March 1999.
Academic Testing
14-Oct-98
Wisconsin District Requires Piano Lessons for K-5 Students.  At the end of the school year, tests showed that the kindergartners who had the lessons scored 43 percent higher on solving puzzles and 53 percent higher on block building than those who did not have the lessons. Karen L. Abercrombie, Education Week, October 14, 1998
Academic Testing
13-Apr-98
In the 1997 Pittsburgh School District the average GPA for gifted students who studied music was 3.45 which was compared to gifted students who did not study music of 3.19 Music And Art Lessons Do More Than Complement Three R's, Ealanor Chute, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 13, 1998
Academic Testing
13-Apr-98
In the Pittsburgh School District, among students overall, those without music training had a dropout rate of 7.4 percent, those with one to two years had a rate of 1 percent; and those with three or more years had a 0.0 percent dropout rate. Music And Art Lessons Do More Than Complement Three R's, Ealanor Chute, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 13, 1998
Academic Testing
11-Jan-98
Substance Abuse Lowest In Music Students.  College-age musicians are emotionally healthier than non-musician counterparts. Houston Chronicle, January 11, 1998
Academic Testing
28-Feb-97
Music Lessons Help Students More Than Computer Training.  Research shows that piano students are better equipped to comprehend mathematical and scientific concepts. Neurological Research, February 28, 1997
Academic Testing
Feb-94
Music Majors are Accepted into Medical School more than any other discipline.  When studying the undergraduate majors of medical school applicants, Physician and biologist Lewis Thomas found that 66% of music majors who applied to med school were admitted, the highest percentage of any group. Forty-four percent (44%) of biochemistry majors were admitted. The Comparative Academic Abilities of Students in Education and in Other Areas of a Multi-focus University, Peter H. Wood, ERIC Document No. ED327480.  Published as "The Case for Music in the Schools,"  Phi Delta Kappan, February 1994
Academic Testing
23-May-96
Studying music strengthens students' academic performance. Studies have indicated that sequential, skill-building instruction in art and music integrated with the rest of the curriculum can greatly improve children's performance in reading and math. Martin Gardiner, Alan Fox, Faith Knowles, and Donna Jeffrey, "Learning Improved by Arts Training," Nature, May 23, 1996
Academic Testing
23-May-96
Music Training HelpsUnder-Achievers.  Researchers find arts training not only raises scholastic performance, but also improves student behavior and attitude. Nature Magazine, May 23, 1996
Academic Testing
Dec-95
In 1993, researchers at the University of California at Irvine discovered the so-called Mozart Effect -- that college students who listened to ten minutes of Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major K448 before taking an IQ test scored nine points higher than when they had sat in silence or listened to relaxation tapes.  Other studies have indicated that people retain information better if they hear classical or baroque music while studying. The Power of Music, Laura Elliott, The Washingtonian, December 1995
Academic Testing
Dec-95
Irvine's Center for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory found that preschoolers who had received eight months of music lessons scored 80 percent higher on object-assembly tasks than did other youngsters who received no musical training. That means the music students had elevated spatial temporal reasoning -- the ability to think abstractly and to visualize physical forms and their possible variations, the higher-level cognition critical to mathematics and engineering. The Power of Music, Laura Elliott, The Washingtonian, December 1995
Academic Testing
Feb-94
The best readers in college are Music Majors The Comparative Academic Abilities of Students in Education and in Other Areas of a Multi-focus University, Peter H. Wood, ERIC Document No. ED327480.  Published as "The Case for Music in the Schools,"  Phi Delta Kappan, February 1994
Academic Testing
1999
Math Skills Grow Over Time With Instrumental Music Participation (Regardless of Socioeconomic Status) Involvement in the Arts and Human Development, James S. Catterall, Richard Chapleau, John Iwanga, UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies, 1999
Academic Testing
1997
Arts Involvement Has Positive Impact On Students of All Socio-Economic Levels. In a study of 25, 000 students, tracked for several years, involvement in the arts improved all areas regardless of socio-economic status.  The study compared all students and then compared students in the Low Socio-economic status (Low SES).  In every category, whether reviewing all students, or just those students in the Low SES, Arts involvement improved all categories.  Categories included academic achievement, drop-out ratios, reading skills, scores in history, Citizenship, geography, involvement in community service, watching television. Involvement in the Arts and Human Development: General Involvement and Intensive Involvement in Music and Theatre Arts. James S. Catterall, Richard Chapleau, and John Iwanga, from the UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies.1997
Academic Testing
1997
Researchers studying the link between music and intelligence divided preschool children into four groups: one group received private piano lessons, the second had private computer training, while the remaining children were divided among a singing-only group and a no-lesson group.  After six months of training, the groups were tested.  Those in piano group had the most dramatic improvement in spatial-temporal reasoning:  their scores increased by 34 percent. Amy Graziano, Gordon Shaw, and Eric Wright. "Music Training Enhances Spatial-Temporal Reasoning in Young Children: Towards Educational Experiments." Early Childhood Connections, Summer 1997.
Academic Testing
1993
A two-year Swiss study involving 1,200 children in 50 schools showed that students involved in the music program were better at languages, learned to read more easily, showed an improved social climate, showed more enjoyment in school, and had a lower level of stress than non-music students. E. W. Weber, M. Spychiger, & J.L. Patry, 1993
Academic Testing
1990
Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 showed that music participants received more academic honors and awards than non-music students, and that the percentage of music participants receiving A's, A's/B's, and B's was higher than the percentage of non-participants receiving those grades. NELS:88 First Follow-Up, 1990, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC.
Academic Testing
1987
A 1981 study by Minicucci showed that kindergarten students' basic skills achievement scores increased when music was added to the curriculum Jeanne Akin, "Music Makes a Difference." (Lafayette, California: Lafayette Arts and Science Foundation, 1987).
Academic Testing
 
Arts Integration Results in Higher Elementary Test Scores. A four-year study involving six teachers and more than 600 students at Rosemont Elementary School in Dallas, Texas, have proven what academicians, educators, and cultural community supporters have been saying for years;  An integrated arts curriculum can dramatically improve overall student achievement. Stephen C. Stapleton, Chairman, Partnership for Arts, Culture and Education, Dallas, Texas
Academic Testing
 
Studies have found that elementary students who received daily music instruction had fewer absences than other students. B. S. Hood III "The Effect of Daily Instruction in Public School Music and Related Experiences upon Non-musical Personal and School Attitudes of Average Achieving Third-Grade Students" (doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University)
Academic Testing
 
Students who participate in band, orchestra, chorus, or a school play, for example, are significantly less likely than nonparticipants to drop out of school, be arrested, use drugs or engage in binge drinking. Coming up Taller, a report about youth arts programs by the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities.
Early Childhood
30-Mar-98
Babies in the womb can hear and remember music as early as 20 weeks gestation, according to research at Keele UniversityÉ. The results, described by Mr. Evans as "astonishing," have implications for fetal development. Fetus Has An Ear For Music at 20 Weeks, Nigel Hawkes, The London Times, March 30, 1998
Early Childhood
Mar-98
As a child's tonal and music skills improve, so does his or her ability to listen.  As listening skills improve, a child's personal, social, and academic skills also improve. Listening Training and Music Education by Paul Madaule.  Published in Early Childhood Connections: Journal of Music and Movement-Based Learning, Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 1998
Early Childhood
Mar-98
Using music to train and prepare the ear is also important in kindergarten and during the early grades, when children start to transpose sounds into letters. The translation of a visual into an auditory image is necessary for reading out loud, just as the reverse is the case for writing.  Both reading and writing thus require phonological awareness, that is to say, a clear, stable, and precise perception of the acoustic content of words. Listening Training and Music Education by Paul Madaule.  Published in Early Childhood Connections: Journal of Music and Movement-Based Learning, Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 1998
Early Childhood
Mar-98
As with any musical instrument, the ear needs to be tuned to do its work.  Within the school system, music education gives children the best opportunity to attune their listening.  Early childhood music teachers can do much to help prevent the occurrence of listening problems, just as later-grade music teachers can help maintain and reinforce listening... Music educators can therefore play a significant role in children's development by teaching them, throughout their years of language acquisition, how to listen. Listening Training and Music Education by Paul Madaule.  Published in Early Childhood Connections: Journal of Music and Movement-Based Learning, Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 1998
Early Childhood
Jan-97
On the basis of observations and experiments with newborns, neuroscientists now know that infants are born with neural mechanisms devoted exclusively to music.  Studies show that early and ongoing musical training helps organize and develop children's brains. Susan Black, "The Musical Mind," The American School Board Journal, January 1997.
Early Childhood
19-Feb-96
Your Child's Brain-A baby's brain is a work in progress, trillions of neurons waiting to be wired into a mind.  The experiences of childhood, pioneering research shows, help form the brain's circuits - for music and math, language and emotion. Newsweek, February 19, 1996
Early Childhood
1997
A research project conducted with three-year-olds in a Los Angeles preschool tested children's spatial reasoning after eight months of keyboard and singinglessons.  The children who had received the music training increased their spatial-temporal reasoning by 46 percent as compared to a 6 percent increase in the control group that received no training. Frances Rauscher, Gordon Shaw, Linda Levine, Eric Wright, Wendy Dennis, and Robert Newcomb, "Music Training Causes Long-term Enhancement of Preschool Children's Spatial-Temporal Reasoning." Neurological Research, vol. 19, February 1997.
Early Childhood
1997
Music - - specifically song - - is one of the best training grounds for babies learning to recognize the tones that add up to spoken language. Sandra Trehub, University of Toronto, 1997
Early Childhood
1996
It is most important to note that because children have a natural love for music and singing, music-integrated reading instruction can help foster a love for lifelongreading.  So, the next time it is story time, remember, read with a beat! Read with a beat: Developing literacy through music and song by Gayla R. Kolb.  Published in "The Reading Teacher" vol. 50 no. 1 September 1996.  Pp. 76-77
Early Childhood
1994
When care-givers pat or stroke babies to the tune of a lullaby, they are helping the children make a connection between what they hear and what they do.  That "hearing-feeling connection," as Weikert calls it, is what allows children to listen to something that is being said or watch something that is being done and follow the directions.  "What your linking is action, thought and language," she said. Maia Davis, Los Angeles Times 1994.
Early Childhood
1991
In a study of fifty-two premature babies and newborns with low birth weight at the Tallahassee Memorial Regional Medical Center in Tallahassee, Florida, a researcher reported that playing sixty-minute tapes of vocal music, including lullabies and children's songs, reduced hospital stay an average of five days.  Mean weight loss of babies was also about 50 percent lower for the group of babies listening to music, formula intake was less, and stress levels were reduced. Janet Caine, "The Effects of Music on the Selected Stress Behaviors, Weight, Caloric and Formula Intake, and Length of Hospital Stay of Premature and Low Birth Weight Neonates in a newborn Intensive Care Unit," Journal of Music Therapy 28 (1991): 180-192
Early Childhood
1991
At Helen Keller Hospital in Alabama, an experiment with newborns found that 94 percent of crying babies immediately fell asleep without a bottle of pacifier when exposed to lullaby music. Lance W. Brunner. "Testimonies Old and New," in "Music and Miracles," ed. Campbell, pp. 8284, Caine, "The Effects of Music, " 180-192.
Early Childhood
1990
An Eastman research project found dramatic increases in language development and memory skills between those children exposed to music and literature in-utero and their siblings who were not. Donald J. Shetler, "The Inquiry into Prenatal Musical Experience: A Report of the Eastman Project 1980-1987."
Early Childhood
1988
A most effective way to teach children to learn and to value language is to provide them with a variety of meaningful experiences that fine-tune their ability to hear rhythm, sounds, and melodies.  The skill children gain in listening will then provide a solid framework for successfully attending to language in print.  The singing-reading connection not only helps children learn to read but also fosters a love for reading. Harp, B., (1988). Why are your kids singing during reading time? "The Reading Teacher," 41, 454-456.
Effects on The Brain
10-Nov-98
The Power of Music.  It's Profound Influence on the Brain is Underscored by New Studies.  Researchers found that the brain; responds directly to harmony, interprets written musical notes and scores in a special area on the brain's right side, grows in response to musical training. The Power of Music,  Robert Lee Hotz, Los Angeles Times, November 10, 1998
Effects on The Brain
Nov-98
Connections between brain cells are called synapses.  Recent brain research demonstrates that these connections grow stronger with use and become weaker if they are not used.  Music Making offers extensive exercise for brain cells and their synapses (connections).  It would be difficult to find another activity that engages so many of the brain's systems. Synapses between brain cells strengthen with use just as muscles do, and there is good reason to believe that music making increases the brain's capacity by improving these synapses. The Music in Our Minds by Norman M. Weinberger.  Published in Educational Leadership, Vol 56, No. 3: November 1998
Effects on The Brain
Nov-98
Brain scans taken during musical performances show that virtually the entire cerebral cortex (central processing area of the brain) is active while musicians are performing.  Almost every system of the brain is at work simultaneously during a music performance, and brain cells are rapidly sending messages.  The "workout" that the brain experiences during a musical performance strengthens the connections between brain cells, allowing the brain to function more efficiently. The Music in Our Minds by Norman M. Weinberger.  Published in Educational Leadership, Vol 56, No. 3: November 1998
Effects on The Brain
Nov-98
Music making offers extensive exercise for brain cells and their synapses (connections).  It would be difficult to find another activity that engages so many of the brain's systems.  Synapses between brain cells strengthen with use just as muscles do, and there is good reason to believe that music making increases the brain's capacity by improving these synapses. The Music in Our Minds by Norman M. Weinberger.  Published in Educational Leadership, Vol 56, No. 3: November 1998
Effects on The Brain
23-Apr-98
Skilled musicians have an area of the brain this is up to 25 percent larger than those who have never played an instrument, research has shown. The scientists also found a link between the age at which a person starts learning an instrument and the size of the musical area. The researchers believe that it is not just an area of the cortex that is enlarged in musicians.  The team previously pinpointed that the plenum temporal of the left hemisphere was also bigger. Scientists Note Brain Power of Musicians, by Nick Nuttall, The London Times, April, 23, 1998
Effects on The Brain
13-Apr-98
Want to give the brain a good workout?  Try making music or doing art. Teaching music to preschoolers and kindergarten students helps to develop their spatial-temporal reasoning. Music And Art Lessons Do More Than Complement Three R's, Ealanor Chute, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 13, 1998
Effects on The Brain
Mar-98
Different types of music reach and stimulate different parts of the brain.  There is music that provides physical energy to the body, and music that provides mental energy to the mindÉ Music is neither "all rhythm" nor "all melody." ÉBoth types of music have a purpose, but they need to be used appropriately.  I would never recommend using Mozart's music or Gregorian Chants for aerobic exercise classes, but I would also never recommend doing homework while listening to rock or rap. Listening Training and Music Education by Paul Madaule.  Published in Early Childhood Connections: Journal of Music and Movement-Based Learning, Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 1998
Effects on The Brain
Mar-98
Because it stimulates the "ear of the body," rhythm enhances all of our body's interrelated functions.  Such stimulation provides a better sense of the body in space and thus helps develop "body image."  Body image and body awareness are instrumental in establishing motor function, coordination and organizational skills. Listening Training and Music Education by Paul Madaule.  Published in Early Childhood Connections: Journal of Music and Movement-Based Learning, Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 1998
Effects on The Brain
Dec-95
It is said that Albert Einstein was a mediocre student until he began playing the violin. "Before that, he had a hard time expressing what he knew," says Hazel Cheilek, orchestra director at Fairfax County's Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, a magnet school where more than a third of the students also play or sing in musical ensembles. "Einstein said he got some of his greatest inspirations while playing violin. It liberated his brain so that he could imagine." The Power of Music, Laura Elliott, The Washingtonian, December 1995
Effects on The Brain
Dec-95
How does music affect the brain? Music is an ordered and predictable sequence of sounds.  In decoding those symbols and patterns, the brain sets up neural highways, or synapses, to receive and analyze data.  These electrical and chemical pathways then can be used for processing other symbol-oriented information, such as language and mathematics.  Like a muscle, the brain becomes more nimble the more it is stretched.  The mental workouts required by music seem to make the brain run stronger and quicker. The Power of Music, Laura Elliott, The Washingtonian, December 1995
Effects on The Brain
1999
Dr Jean Houston of the Foundation for Mind Research believes that the brains of children not exposed to music arts education are actually being damaged because these non-verbal modalitites help them with skills such as reading, writing, and math. Sharlene Habermeyer, "Good Music, Brighter Children." (California: Prima Publishing, 1999).
Effects on The Brain
Dec-95
German scientists discovered that in musicians who have perfect pitch -- the ability to recognize notes by ear -- and who typically began studying music before the age of seven, the planum temporale -- the region on the brain's left side that processes sound signals, particularly language -- is three time the average size. The Power of Music, Laura Elliott, The Washingtonian, December 1995
Effects on The Brain
1994
The ability to respond physically to a musical beat is closely linked to children's skills in reading, writing, and concentration.  The school has noticed that the motor skills class, which uses music to teach rhythm, helps kids concentrate and hold their attention span longer.  "We have seen kids who have difficulty reading and writing improve because they are able to organize their thoughts better," said Principal Beverly McCaslin. Maia Davis, Los Angeles Times 1994.
Effects on The Brain
1994
Doctors in the coronary care unit of Saint Agnes Hospital in Baltimore report that an half an hour of listening to classical music produced the same effect as ten milligrams of Valium. Sheila Ostrander & Lynn Schroeder with Nancy Ostrander, Superlearning 2000. (New York: Delacorte Press, 1994), 76.
Effects on The Brain
1993
Researchers at Michigan State University concluded that listening to one's "preferred" music may elicit a profound positive emotional experience that can trigger the release of hormones which can contribute to a lessening of those factors which enhance the disease process. Dale Bartlett, Donald Kaufman, and Roger Smeltekop, "The Effects of Music Listening and Perceived Sensory Experiences on the Immune System as Measured by Interleukin-1 and Cortisol," Journal of Music Therapy 30 (1993):  194-209
Effects on The Brain
1993
Research shows that when a child listens to classical music the right hemisphere of the brain is activated, but when a child studies a musical instrument both left and right hemispheres of the brain "light up."  Significantly, the areas that become activated are the same areas that are involved in analytical and mathematical thinking. Dee Dickinson, "Music and the Mind." (Seattle: New Horizons for Learning, 1993).
Effects on The Brain
1990
A researcher at the University of California at Irvine has found that music and language are inseparably linked as a single system in the brain. This system is acquired in the earliest stages of infancy and continues as the child processes the sounds of human voices around him or her. Robert Garfias, "Thoughts on the Processes of Language and Music Acquisition," In "Music and Child Development" edited by Frank Wilson and Franz Roehmann, (St Louis, MO: MMB Music, Inc., 1990) 100.
Effects on The Elderly
10-Nov-98
Music Helps Stroke Patients. Some doctors today already use music to help rehabilitate stroke patients.  Surprisingly, some stroke patients who have lost their ability to speak retain their ability to sing, and this opens an avenue for therapist to retrain the brain's speech centers. The Power of Music,  Robert Lee Hotz, Los Angeles Times, November 10, 1998
Effects on The Elderly
1999
Music making makes the elderly healthier.  There were significant decreases in anxiety, depression, and loneliness following keyboard lessons.  These are factors that are critical in coping with stress, stimulating the immune system, and in improved health.  Results also show significant increases in human growth hormones following the same group keyboard lessons. (Human growth hormone is implicated in aches and pains.) Dr. Frederick Tims, Michigan State University.  Music Makinhg and Wellness Project, 1999.
Effects on The Elderly
1997
In recovery wards and rehabilitation clinics, music is widely used to restructure and "repattern" repetitive movements following accidents and illnesses. Don Campbell, The Mozart Effect. (New York: Avon Books, 1997), 69
Effects on The Elderly
1997
Researchers in Colorado found that stroke patients who were given rhythmic auditory stimulation a half four a day for three weeks had improved cadence, stride, and foot placement compared with a control group. Marwick, "Leaving Concert Hall for Clinic."  In "The Mozart Effect" by Don Campbell (New York: Avon Books, 1997), 273.
Effects on The Elderly
1991
Music therapists working with Alzheimer's patients have found that rhythmic interaction or listening to music has resulted in decreased agitation, increased focus and concentration, enhanced ability to respond verbally and behaviorally, elimination of demented speech, improved ability to respond to questions, and better social interaction. Carol Prickett and Randall Moore, "The Use of Music to Aid Memory of Alzheimer's Patients," Journal of Music Therapy 28 (1991)
Learning Abilities
1/31/02
Rhythm Seen as Key to Music's Evolutionary Role in Human IntellectualDevelopment.  Study findings in that will soon be published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy show that improving children's physical rhythmicity also produces statistically significant positive gains in his or her capacity to focus and attend; plan, sequence, and coordinate actions; as well as a variety of cognitive and language skills, including reading, spelling, and math. Timing, Concentration, and Motor Skills (TCAMS) Professional Resource Center
Learning Abilities
1/31/02
Individuals with fundamental rhythmicity typically have the ability to 1. Recognize that rhythmic patterns exist in our surroundings, 2. Focus their attention long enough to recognize individual patterns within a group of simultaneously occurring patterns, 4. create patterns (actions and thoughts) that are in sync (entrain) with other patterns, 5. conciously adjust or stop their own patterns so they don't interfere with the patterns of others, and, 6. learn from previous experiences. Timing, Concentration, and Motor Skills (TCAMS) Professional Resource Center
Learning Abilities
1/31/02
Individuals with exceptional rhythmicity typically have the ability to: 1. Stay focused on internal and/or external patterns for extended periods of time without interruption, 2. Unconsciously distinguish between minute individual patterns occurring within a group of simultaneously occurring intricate patterns. 3.unconsciously adjust own personal rhythms when they waver from what is intended, 4. make faster and more precise corrections, 5. create highly creative (productive) rhythm patterns that others tend to follow (entrain with) and learn from, 6. more effectively learn from previous experiences, and 7. have exceptional experiences that often occur as a direct result of having highly accurate rhythmicity (timing). Timing, Concentration, and Motor Skills (TCAMS) Professional Resource Center
Learning Abilities
15-Dec-01
THE ARTS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR SUCCESS - Not only are the arts fun for kids, they help kids in school and working to learn How Do The Arts Contribute Contribute to Education? An Evaluation of Research.  Kent Sidel, PhD, Published by the Association for the Advancement of Arts Education, AAAE
Learning Abilities
15-Dec-01
THE ARTS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR SUCCESS - Not only do the arts remove boundaries and allow students to explore aspects of life around them in new ways, but connecting the arts with other disciplines like math, reading and writing, or science often helps students learn about, comprehend, and value those disciplines as well.  In short, the arts are as much a part of a child's development and success as they are a part of a successful and enlightened society. How Do The Arts Contribute Contribute to Education? An Evaluation of Research.  Kent Sidel, PhD, Published by the Association for the Advancement of Arts Education, AAAE
Learning Abilities
15-Dec-01
BASIC ABILITIES -There is substantial evidence that working with the arts, especially in grades kindergarten through seven, develops students' minds and bodies in ways that enable them to learn better How Do The Arts Contribute Contribute to Education? An Evaluation of Research.  Kent Sidel, PhD, Published by the Association for the Advancement of Arts Education, AAAE
Learning Abilities
15-Dec-01
WAYS AND MEANS - There is substantial evidence that all of the arts are effective in keeping kids in school, in reaching students at-risk and students with distinctive learning styles, and in helping to develop a more disciplined educational environment in which students' energies are directed at learning and creating.  The arts not only make education more interesting, they literally make learning accessible to many students for the first time. How Do The Arts Contribute Contribute to Education? An Evaluation of Research.  Kent Sidel, PhD, Published by the Association for the Advancement of Arts Education, AAAE
Learning Abilities
15-Dec-01
There is substantial research that shows when the arts are connected in meaningful ways with other subject areas, students comprehend and retain more about the subjects involved.  Arts programs have been quite effective in teaching math, science, reading, writing, general language development, history, and social studies. How Do The Arts Contribute Contribute to Education? An Evaluation of Research.  Kent Sidel, PhD, Published by the Association for the Advancement of Arts Education, AAAE
Learning Abilities
15-Dec-01
The arts assist teachers in more effectively reaching students with disabilities and learning disorders. How Do The Arts Contribute Contribute to Education? An Evaluation of Research.  Kent Sidel, PhD, Published by the Association for the Advancement of Arts Education, AAAE
Learning Abilities
15-Dec-01
There are numerous good examples of how the arts have aided in the teaching of other languages, including English as a foreign language. How Do The Arts Contribute Contribute to Education? An Evaluation of Research.  Kent Sidel, PhD, Published by the Association for the Advancement of Arts Education, AAAE
Learning Abilities
6-Dec-01
The arts also afford youngsters an opportunity to work on problems that can have more than one correct solution or address questions that can have more than one correct answer. An Interview with Elliott Eisner - professor of art and education, Stanford University.  Published in Kappa Delta Pi Journal Record
Learning Abilities
6-Dec-01
When well done, students in the arts are deeply engaged, their sensibilities refined, their imagination promoted, the development of technical skills fostered; furthermore they employ all of the former to articulate ideas that have some significance. When well taught, the arts model the best forms of educational experience. An Interview with Elliott Eisner - professor of art and education, Stanford University.  Published in Kappa Delta Pi Journal Record
Learning Abilities
26-May-01
Rats that have listened to Mozart sonatas since before birth learn faster than other rats, researchers have foundÉ This suggests that repeated exposures to complex music induces improved spatial-temporal learning in rats - resembling results found in humans. Reuters News Service, May 26, 2001. "Got Mozart? It Does a Rat Good."
Learning Abilities
1-Feb
In a fifth grade class teachers used the polyrhythms of Afro-Cuban drumming to teach the math concept of least common multiplier. The Intersection of Two Unlikely Worlds: Ratios and Drums. Anthony C. Stevens, Janet M. Sharp, and Becky Nelson. Published in "Teaching Children Mathematics" February 2001.
Learning Abilities
Jul-99
Through arts training there are at least five specific types of abilities that teachers described as coming from arts students.  These abilities are: 1) Express ideas and feelings openly and thoughtfully, 2) Form relationships among different items of experience and layer them in thinking through an idea or problem. 3) Conceive or imagine different vantage points of an idea or problem and to work toward a resolution. 4) Construct and organize thoughts and ideas into meaningful units of wholes. 5) Focus perception on an item or experience and sustain this focus over a period of time. Learning In and Through the Arts: Curriculum Implications by Judith Burton, Robert Horowitz, and Hal Abeles, from the Center for Arts Education Research Teachers College, Columbia University, July 1999. Published in the compilation "Champions of Change"
Learning Abilities
Jul-99
Situations in which arts-related skills are especially useful. 1) A need for pupils to figure out or elaborate on ideas on their own. 2) A need to structure and organize thinking in light of different  kinds of experiences. 3) Knowledge needs to be tested or demonstrated in new and original ways. 4) The learning task involves persistence, ownership, empathy, and collaboration. Learning In and Through the Arts: Curriculum Implications by Judith Burton, Robert Horowitz, and Hal Abeles, from the Center for Arts Education Research Teachers College, Columbia University, July 1999. Published in the compilation "Champions of Change"
Learning Abilities
Jul-99
The arts help to develop students' skills in problem solving, empathy, and creativity. These skills are useful in all disciplines and situations.  The arts also have a positive impact on teachers' attitudes and school climate.  The arts deal with human expression, and students learn to work with each other, express ideas and thoughts, and take ownership of their work.  Students in the arts must present their work publicly, either through performance or exhibition, and this makes the arts a uniquediscipline.  The arts are most effective when they are connected with the rest of the school curriculum and when students are allowed to explore topics from both an artistic and an academic perspective.  Through connection with other subjects the arts become a central part of the learning experience, drawing upon the content of other disciplines and adding depth and quality to the learning process. Learning In and Through the Arts: Curriculum Implications by Judith Burton, Robert Horowitz, and Hal Abeles, from the Center for Arts Education Research Teachers College, Columbia University, July 1999. Published in the compilation "Champions of Change"
Learning Abilities
Jul-99
Math: The Invisible Hand Behind The Music. Reading music requires an understanding of ratios and proportions. Arithmetic progressions in music correspond to geometric progressions in mathematics; that is, the relation between the two is logarithmic. NCTM News Bulletin, July/August 1999
Learning Abilities
Apr-98
The word is out:  Researchers have discovered a way to make kids smarter.  And savvy parents are signing their children up for private piano lessons while school boards debate the role of music in the public school curriculum. Research, Music and Policy Debates, Joan Schmidt, Director-National School Boards Association.  Published in the Montana School Boards Association Bulletin, April, 1998.
Learning Abilities
Mar-98
As a highly organized combination of sounds, music helps organize and clarify our minds.  Music can therefore help us process information more effectively. Listening Training and Music Education by Paul Madaule.  Published in Early Childhood Connections: Journal of Music and Movement-Based Learning, Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 1998
Learning Abilities
2000
Students with musical training apparently have a greater capability to process all sounds, including speech. Music Training and Mental Imagery Ability.  By A. Aleman, M.R. Nieuwenstein, K.B. e. Bocker, and E.H.F. de Haan. Published in Neuropsychologica, Vol. 38 (2000), pp. 1664-1668
Learning Abilities
1999
Dr. Lassa Golkin brought music games into schools to help teach academic skills. Children who were unable to learn in a traditional school setting were able to learn the skills set to musical games. Sharlene Habermeyer, "Good Music, Brighter Children," (California: Prima Publishing, 1999), 151.
Learning Abilities
1999
A study conducted in 1982 by Delehanty found that first graders learn to read and write within a few weeks when learning lessons to music. Sharlene Habermeyer, "Good Music, Brighter Children." (California: Prima Publishing, 1999) 135.
Learning Abilities
1999
Singing sight words to kindergarten children helped them to learn the words much faster than those children learning the words without the teacher singing them Sharlene Habermeyer, "Good Music, Brighter Children." (California: Prima Publishing, 1999). 131
Learning Abilities
1997
The U. S. Department of Education lists the arts as subjects that college-bound middle and junior high school students should take, stating, "Many colleges view participation in the arts and music as a valuable experience that broadens students' understanding and appreciation of the world around them.  It is also well known and widely recognized the arts contribute significantly to children's intellectual development." Getting Ready for College Early: A Handbook for Parents of Students in the Middle and Junior High School Year, U.S. Department of Education, 1997
Learning Abilities
1997
Singing Familiar Songs is Found to Use Spatial Abilities.  Singing appears to be much more than just a fun thing to do: it seemingly uses a person's spatial intelligence.  The simple act of singing changes the way the brain "thinks" about music.  These findings come on the heels of recent reports showing that piano playing increases the spatial ability of children.  Now it seems that singing uses the same mental skills. Robert Cutietta & Gregory Booth.  The Influence of Metre, Mode, Interval Type, and Contour in Repeated Melodic Free-Recall.  The Psychology of Music, vol. 24, No. 2. Pages 222-236.
Learning Abilities
1997
Music classes, filled with singing, are often considered fluff by many school administrators.  Now it seems this fun activity is actually developing a child's spatial ability: an ability important in everything from driving a car to advanced math. Robert Cutietta & Gregory Booth.  The Influence of Metre, Mode, Interval Type, and Contour in Repeated Melodic Free-Recall. The Psychology of Music, vol. 24, No. 2 Pages: 222-236
Learning Abilities
1991
The U. S. Department of Labor issued a report in 1991 urging schools to teach for the future workplace.  The skills they recommended (working in teams, communication, self-esteem, creative thinking, imagination, and invention) are exactly those learned in school music and arts education programs 1991 SCANS Report, U. S. Department of Commerce
Learning Abilities
1987
When handicapped children in the Clover Park School District in Tacoma, Washington, were taught basic academic skills through music, their were consistently able to learn more easily.  Music helped in teaching them perceptual skills, according to researchers Appell and Goldberg. Jeanne Akin, "Music Makes a Difference." (Lafayette, California: Lafayette Arts and Science Foundation, 1987).
Misc.
6-Dec-01
The arts are provided [in schools] when it is possible to do so, but they are not generally considered a part of the core academic program. An Interview with Elliott Eisner - professor of art and education, Stanford University.  Published in Kappa Delta Pi Journal Record
Misc.
8-Nov-01
Do the faculty, parents, administrators, and students at your school know that music is mathematical? Do they know how music encompasses almost every other subject in school, too?  Do they realize that the actual "doing" - the performing of music, is a chance for students to experience for themselves many concepts that they read about in textbooks in other classes? CONNECTING MUSIC TO OTHER SCHOOL SUBJECTS. WhyMusicEd.com Newsletter, November 8, 2001
Misc.
1-Feb
New Survey of Americans Indicates Broad Support for Arts Education. 73% of respondents to a phone survey ranked the importance of arts education for a child's development at an 8 or higher on a scale of 1 to 10. 91% agree that the arts are vital to providing a well-rounded education. 89% believe that arts education is important enough that schools should find the money to ensure inclusion in the curriculum. 75% agree that incorporating the arts into public education is the first step in adding back what's missing in public education today. Americans for the Arts Phone Survey Results, February 2001
Misc.
1-Feb
New Survey of Americans Indicates Broad Support But Little Action on Behalf of the Arts.     76% of respondents to a national survey believe that arts education is important enough to get personally involved in arts education in the schools, but only 35% of those who are closely involved in the life of a child have done so. Americans for the Arts Phone Survey Results, February 2001
Misc.
1-Feb
Survey shows that Principals and School Board Members do not agree with teachers or PTA on the adequacy of the school arts program.  In a survey by Americans for the Arts, 100% of responding principals are satisfied with their current arts programs as are 97% of school board members. In comparison, only 52% of teachers and 67% of PTA officers are satisfied. Americans for the Arts Phone Survey Results, February 2001
Misc.
Sep-00
The Brains of "non-musicians" show musical activity at an unconscious level. Norman Weinberger, MuSICA Research Notes, Fall 2000
Misc.
10-Nov-98
Only one in four students gets the chance to sing, play an instrument or perform plays in class each week, even though most American schools offer some type of arts education program, an Education Department study found. Associated Press, NY, November 10, 1998
Misc.
Oct-96
The nation's top business executives agree that arts education programs can help repair weaknesses in American education and better prepare workers for the 21st century. The Changing Workplace is Changing Our View of Education, Business Week, October 1996.
Misc.
2001
For some strange reason, when it comes to music and the arts, our world view has led us to believe they are easily expendable.  Well, I believe that a nation that allows music to be expendable is in danger of becoming expendable itself. Richard Dreyfus - 38th Annual Grammy Awards
Misc.
2000
The College Board identifies the arts (including music) as one of the six basic academic subject areas students should study in order to succeed in college. "Preparation in the arts will be valuable to college entrants whatever their intended field of study." Academic Preparation for College: What Students Need to Know and Be able to Do, 1983 (still in use), The College Board, New York.
Misc.
2000
I have a premonition that one day soon we will wake up, like Woody Allen's character in the film Sleeper, to the realization that stripping instrumental music from our elementary schools was a true blunder of twentieth century American education. James S. Catteral, professor of education and co-director of Imagination Project at UCLA
Misc.
1999
While most of us will never sing like Aretha Franklin or Celine Dion, and education in the arts can help all of us reach our individual dreams.  Research now shows that music education not only lifts our children's hears, but also dramatically increases their abstract reasoning, spatial skills and their scores on math and verbal exams.  At a time when too many arts education programs are the first to be cut and the last to be added, all of us must send a clear message. When it comes to igniting our children's ability to learn and imagine, the arts must be just as central to our children's education as the three R's. Hillary Rodham Clinton
Misc.
1999
Admissions officers at 70% of the nation's major universities have stated that high school credit and achievement in the arts are significant considerations for admission to their institutions. Tim Lautzenheiser and Michael Kumer "Music's Impact: Elementary to High School" from "Music Advocacy Action Kit," provided by The Selmer Company. Presented at the 1999 Midwest Band and Orchestra Clinic in Chicago.
Misc.
1998
The number of community bands in the United States is rising, and adults in community bands cite two main reasons for their participation: 1) social environment, 2) pursuit of happiness and excellence Participation in Community and Company Bands in Japan by Deborah A. Sheldon. Published in "Update: Applications of Research in Music Education"  Vol. 17 No. 1, Fall-Winter 1998.
Misc.
1997
Music can affect body temperature because of its influence on blood circulation, pulse rate, breathing, and sweating.  Transcendent music and loud music can raise our body heat a few degrees, while soft music with a weak beat can lower it. Don Campbell, The Mozart Effect. (New York: Avon Books, 1997), 70-71
Misc.
1995
A 1985 study by Edward Kvet showed that student absence from class to study a musical instrument does not result in lower academic achievement.  He found no academic achievement difference between sixth grade students who were excused from class for instrumental study and those who were not, matching variables of sex, race, IQ, cumulative achievement, school attended, and classroom teacher. Spin-offs: The Extra-Musical Advantage of a Musical Education, Cutietta, Hamann, and Walker (Elkhart, Indiana: United Music Instruments U.S.A., Inc, 1995).
Misc.
1991
Researchers at Johns Hopkins have found that rock music causes people to eat faster and to eat a larger volume or food, while classical music-especially slow string music- makes them eat more slowly and consume less. Don Campbell, Music --Physician for Times to Come. (Wheaton, Illinois: Quest Books, 1991)
Misc.
1990
The city of Edmonton, Canada, pipes in Mozart string quartets in the city squares to calm pedestrian traffic, and, as a result, drug dealings have lessened. Music -- Let's Split, Newsweek, 1990
Misc.
1989
DOES MUSIC MAKE YOU SMARTER? One of the most innovative and entrepreneurial centers of U.S. commerce is the Silicon Valley of California.  One of the most striking facts in Silicon Valley industry is that the very best engineers and technical designers are, nearly without exception, practicing musicians. Grant Venerable. "The Paradox of the Silicon Savior."  In the Case for Dquential Music Education in the Core Curriculum of the Public Schools.  New York: The Center for the Arts in the Basic Curriculum, 1989.
Misc.
1988
In an aerobics class, researchers reported that music increased the subjects' strength and improved their ability to pace their movements, all while enhancing their mood and motivation. Kate Gfeller, "Musical Components and Styles Preferred by Young Adults for Aerobic Fitness Activities," Journal of Music Therapy 25(1988): 28-43
Misc.
1987
Music can help migraine sufferers reduce the intensity, frequency, and duration of the headaches. Paul Chance, "Music Hath Charms to Soothe a Throbbing Head, " Psychology Today, February 1987, p. 14
Quotes
 
It's a given that today's employee has to have basic skills.  But superior skills are needed to survive competitively in the global context.  Acquiring them has to begin as early as possible in a child's education, and we see that it comes throught arts education.  We are not doing justice to our economy or our children if they don't get that in the K through 12 context. Dan Lacy. Corporate Vice President for Communications, Ashland, Inc.
Quotes
 
The purpose of education is not simply to inform but to enrich and enlighten, to provide insights into life as it had been led and as it may be led.  No element of the curriculum is better suited to that task than arts educationÉ The arts take us beyond pragmatic concerns of the moment and give us a glimpse of human possibility. David Kearnes, now retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Xerox Corporation.
Quotes
 
We must encourage our youngsters in such pursuits as music education.  In addition to learning the valuable lesson that it takes hard work to achieve success, no matter what the arena, music education can provide students with a strong sense of determination, improved communication skills, and a host of other qualities essential for successful living. Edward H. Reins, former Chief Operations Officer, President and Chief Operating Officer, U.S.A. McDonald's Corporation
Quotes
 
Music and the arts help children grow and learn in multiple ways, and they are vital to educating our nation's children. Anne Dowling, President of the Texaco Foundation
Quotes
 
We see a tremendous need for workers who are creative, analytical, disciplined, and self-confident.  And we believe that hands-on participation in the arts is one of the best ways to develop these leadership abilities in young people. Jane Poling, Manager of the GEE. Fund
Quotes
 
For the future of our children and our communities, we must find new ways to engage students in the learning process.  The arts can be a powerful vehicle through which to challenge young people's minds, stir their creativity, instill discipline and build self-esteem. Lawrence A. Hough, President and Chief Executive Officer, Sallie Mae
Quotes
 
The arts can communicate with the effect and impact that captivate young people.  Dance, music, and writing -- they facilitate an environment conducive to learning and creativity.  It's here that we can start to turn the tide as members of the corporate community. Michael R. Bowlin, Chief Executive Officer, ARCO
Quotes
 
The arts enrich communities and employees, and also stimulate the kind of intellectual curiosity our company needs to stay competitive. Norman R. Augustine, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Martin Marietta Corporation
Quotes
 
We believe the skills the arts teach - creative thinking, problem-solving and risk-taking, and teamwork and communication -- are precisely the tools the workforce of tomorrow will need.  If we don't encourage students to master these skills through quality arts instruction today, how can we ever expect them to succeed in their highly competitive business careers tomorrow? Richard Gurin, former President and Chief Executive Officer, Binney and Smith, make of Crayola Crayons
Quotes
 
We live in an age increasingly ruled by science and technology, a fact that only underscores the need for more emphasis of the artsÉ A grounding in the arts will help our children see; to bring a uniquely human perspective to science and technology.  In short, it will help them as they grow smarter to also grow wiser. Robert E. Allen, former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, AT&T Corporation
Quotes
 
I believe that there is a place for the arts -- music, dance, drawing, painting, writing -- in the school curriculum.  In the elementary grades, the arts are a valuable component in broadening a child's mind and talents.  In secondary school, the arts provide a sense of history, connecting the past to the present.  When a student reaches college, a liberal arts education teaches not just clear but creative, innovative thinking.  That's the kind of individual I'm interested in recruiting for Chase: one who can think conceptually, write well and -- perhaps most importantly --bring a creative outlook to the conference-room table. Willard C. Butcher, former Chairman of the Board of The Chase Manhattan Corporation
Quotes
 
The need for improving education is well-accepted.  There is no better way to achieve this goal than through an understanding of an appreciation for the arts. Aruthur Y. Ferrara, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Guardian Life Insurance Company
Quotes
 
Business also benefits from education in the arts. Successful companies in our emerging global economy need more than technicians.  Appreciation of music and related arts bridges the gap among societies and offers young people valuable lessons in cooperation and sensitivity to others. William E. LaMothe, former Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, Kellogg Company
Social Factors
1/31/02
Rhythmicity is a critical foundation of our ability to learn.  The soon to be published studies suggest that helping our children improve their rhythmicity will likely help them become more productive members of society.  They also verify another age-old saying:  Everything is just a matter of timing! Timing, Concentration, and Motor Skills (TCAMS) Professional Resource Center
Social Factors
15-Dec-01
THE ARTS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR SUCCESS - Not only do the arts require self-discipline, creativity, and confidence to succeed, but these and other important habits stay with students and help them succeed in other areas of school, life, and work. How Do The Arts Contribute Contribute to Education? An Evaluation of Research.  Kent Sidel, PhD, Published by the Association for the Advancement of Arts Education, AAAE
Social Factors
15-Dec-01
THE ARTS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR SUCCESS - Not only do the arts represent many ways of experiencing and understanding the world, but they actually help develop the many types of intelligences that all people possess and use all the time. How Do The Arts Contribute Contribute to Education? An Evaluation of Research.  Kent Sidel, PhD, Published by the Association for the Advancement of Arts Education, AAAE
Social Factors
15-Dec-01
There is recent research to indicate that the arts teach students to become self-motivated learners and to use time and other resources effectively - important skills in school and business How Do The Arts Contribute Contribute to Education? An Evaluation of Research.  Kent Sidel, PhD, Published by the Association for the Advancement of Arts Education, AAAE
Social Factors
15-Dec-01
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS - There is substantial evidence that the arts themselves are important for students to understand.  We are surrounded by arts - almost nothing is created or communicated without their influence, and we are influenced continuously by music, art, drama and dramatic media, dance and movement. How Do The Arts Contribute Contribute to Education? An Evaluation of Research.  Kent Sidel, PhD, Published by the Association for the Advancement of Arts Education, AAAE
Social Factors
15-Dec-01
The arts are the voice and the record of a people. What we know about past cultures, we learn chiefly from the arts that they leave behind.  It is not surprising, then, to discovers that the arts are very good at teaching students many skills which they need in order to live and work in a society.  Interpersonal skills; the ability to work in teams; an understanding, tolerance, and even appreciation for diversity in people and ideas; and the ability to lead and communicate effectively with groups are all strengthened through participation in the arts. How Do The Arts Contribute Contribute to Education? An Evaluation of Research.  Kent Sidel, PhD, Published by the Association for the Advancement of Arts Education, AAAE
Social Factors
6-Dec-01
Work in the arts requires that children learn how to pay attention to relationshipsÉ So many of the decisions that are made in life are decisions that cannot be made by appealing to formula, recipes, or algorithms. The arts promote that kind of perception and engender that sort of thinking. An Interview with Elliott Eisner - professor of art and education, Stanford University.  Published in Kappa Delta Pi Journal Record
Social Factors
6-Dec-01
The arts promote the use of imagination. An Interview with Elliott Eisner - professor of art and education, Stanford University.  Published in Kappa Delta Pi Journal Record
Social Factors
1-Jan
Interpretive choices are "there" in Mozart - exposed for all to hear at every level of development, making it the perfect choice for nurturing metaperceptive decision-making. How Mozart REALLY Makes You Smarter, Joanne Haroutounian, Piano and Keyboard, January/February 2001
Social Factors
Dec-00
The greater the involvement in music, the lower the arrest record. Martin Gardiner of Brown University recently reported that teens who had music education were less likely to get into trouble than students who did not.  However, those who also were involved in playing a musical instrument had even fewer brushes with the law.  Those who had the most experience, including good sight-reading ability, had a negligible arrest record. MuSICA Research Notes, Volum VII, Issue 1, Winter 2000
Social Factors
8-Mar-00
According to National Association for Music Education Executive Director Dr. John Mahlmann, music should be a part of every child's core curriculum, not a frill. "There is more evidence every day that music education has a beneficial ripple effect through the rest of a child's academic and social life." he said. "Music shouldn't be any more optional than English of math. Making that a reality will be much easier if the people here on Capitol Hill are behind us." Dr. John Mahlmann, Executive Director, National Association for Music Education
Social Factors
Jul-99
Arts Students have more self confidence. (Physical Ability Self-Confidence - Arts 30%, Low Arts 20%) (Physical Appearance Self-Confidence - Arts 27%, Low Arts 24%) (Peer Relations Self-Confidence - Arts 29%, Low Arts 23%) (Parent Relations Self-Confidence - Arts 35%, Low Arts 24%) (General Self-Confidence - Arts 37%, Low Arts 27%) ( Reading Self Confidence - Arts 40%, Low Arts 20%) (Mathematics Self-Confidence-Arts 30%, Low Arts 15%) (General School Self-Confidence-Arts 36%, Low Arts 19%) ( Total Non-Academic Self Confidence-Arts 33%, Low Arts 24%) (Total Academic Self-Confidence-Arts 41%, Low Arts 18%) (Total Self Confidence-Arts 34%, Low Arts 18%) Learning In and Through the Arts: Curriculum Implications by Judith Burton, Robert Horowitz, and Hal Abeles, from the Center for Arts Education Research Teachers College, Columbia University, July 1999. Published in the compilation "Champions of Change"
Social Factors
Jul-99
IMPACT OF THE ARTS ON THE "CLIMATE" OF THE SCHOOL. "Arts" refers to schools in which the students receive the most arts exposure; "Low Arts" refers to schools in which the students receive the least arts exposure. (Teachers have good working relationships with each other; Arts 47%, Low Arts 34%) (Teachers have good rapport with students; Arts 83%, Low Arts 38%) (Teachers Participate in Professional Development Activities; Arts 81%, Low Arts 38%) (Teachers consider their teaching innovative; Arts 81%, Low Arts 38%) Learning In and Through the Arts: Curriculum Implications by Judith Burton, Robert Horowitz, and Hal Abeles, from the Center for Arts Education Research Teachers College, Columbia University, July 1999. Published in the compilation "Champions of Change"
Social Factors
13-Aug-98
Artistically inclined scientists tend to win more awards than their less diversified colleagues, according to several studies.  Michigan State University physiologist Robert Root-Bernstein and his psychologist mother, Maurine Bernstein, found that most Nobel Prize winners and members of the National Academy of Sciences had arts-related hobbies. Mind Over Matter.  Why the Arts Are Important to Science, K.C. Cole, Science Writer, Los Angeles Times, August 13, 1998
Social Factors
13-Aug-98
Why should painting or playing piano or writing poetry have anything to do with math or science?  One obvious reason is that scientists, like artists, must learn to pay close attention-- both to detail and to the broader context. Scientists, like artists, are people who notice things.  They not only see things that other people often ignore, they also see the frequently hidden links among disparate aspects of reality. Mind Over Matter.  Why the Arts Are Important to Science, K.C. Cole, Science Writer, Los Angeles Times, August 13, 1998
Social Factors
13-Aug-98
Painting, piano playing, and poetry help put things in context, sharpen details, hone observations.  They sort the essential from the peripheral, forge connections, find patterns and discover new ways of seeing familiar things.  These are exactly the tools any good scientist needs. Mind Over Matter.  Why the Arts Are Important to Science, K.C. Cole, Science Writer, Los Angeles Times, August 13, 1998
Social Factors
Mar-98
Children who listen exclusively to rap have little tonal differentiation. During the process of teaching tonal differentiation through a church choir program, dramatic changes were taking place in the children's personal, social and academic lives.  Those participating in the choir program were staying out of trouble, were attending school, and were improving their marks. In short, the more their musical abilities ( and hence, listening skills) developed, the more integration, self control and direction they acquired. Some of them are now studying at Harvard, Columbia, and West Point. Listening Training and Music Education by Paul Madaule.  Published in Early Childhood Connections: Journal of Music and Movement-Based Learning, Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 1998
Social Factors
Mar-98
During the course of my clinical career, I have seen countless children blossom at the sound of music.  This experience has convinced me that the role of the music educator goes far beyond teaching a subject of the school curriculum or initiating to a specific art form.  It includes no less than a development, enrichment, and refinement of children's ability to listen.  Listening is at the very root of all human communication - both verbal and nonverbal. Listening Training and Music Education by Paul Madaule.  Published in Early Childhood Connections: Journal of Music and Movement-Based Learning, Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 1998
Social Factors
Mar-98
The music teacher who trains children to listen contributes significantly toward their [a child's] readiness and ability to communicate, talk, learn, and optimize their potential. Listening Training and Music Education by Paul Madaule.  Published in Early Childhood Connections: Journal of Music and Movement-Based Learning, Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 1998
Social Factors
Mar-98
How many children agonize for months over their multiplication tables.  The key is to inject these tables with rhythm which will be embodied through the vestibular system thereby allowing children more effective access to their nervous systems. Listening Training and Music Education by Paul Madaule.  Published in Early Childhood Connections: Journal of Music and Movement-Based Learning, Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 1998
Social Factors
1997
Upon integration of the arts into major subjects in fourteen New York Elementary and secondary public schools, student behavior improved strikingly in such areas as taking risks, cooperating, solving problems, taking initiative for learning, and being prepared. Content-related achievement also rose. Dee Dickinson, "Learning Through the Arts." (Seattle: New Horizons for Learning, 1997)
Social Factors
1990
Courses in music, as well as in art and drama, positively influenced the decisions of high school students not to drop out of school. N. Barry, J. Taylor, & K. Walls, "The Role of the Fine and Performing Arts in High School Dropout Prevention" (Tallahassee, Florida: Center for Music Research, Florida State University, 1990).
Social Factors
1987
A 1984 study by Mueller found that physical, mental, emotional, and social development is faster when students learn a music instrument. Jeanne Akin, "Music Makes a Difference." (Lafayette, California: Lafayette Arts and Science Foundation, 1987).
Social Factors
 
There is a very high correlation between positive self-perception, high cognitive competence scores, healthy self-esteem, total interest and school involvement, and the study of music. O.F. Lillemyr "Achievement Motivation as a Factor in Self-Perception," Norwegian Research Council for Science and the Humanities.