Techniques for Learning and Practicing
Sight-Singing Skills

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Practicing Rhythms

    1. First, the speed of each beat must be decided upon. The metronome can be used to give you a relative sense of speed, as each speed is marked with a number. The number 60 represents 60 beats per minute, or one beat per second. The number 120 would represent 120 beats per minute or a beat per half second etc. It is important to establish a regular speed (tempo) and to stick with it until you decide to change it. Pick a tempo that is slow enough for you to do the counting easily and comfortably. Start with a beat=92 or thereabouts (that is, approximately a beat per 3/4 of a second) and go from there, up or down, according to your needs.
    2. Next begin to count the number of beats per measure in time with the metronome or, absent this device, as steadily as you can. Thus, count "one, two, three, four, one, two, three, four, etc." Give a little added emphasis to the number "one" each time you say it. This will allow you to sense the grouping of the quarter notes into fours. You might think of a march to help you get a sense of this 4/4 "meter" (Think of meter as the word is used poetry).
    3. After you have counted several measures (to establish a comfortable tempo), continue to count, but now begin to clap once for every beat at the same time you say each number. Again, emphasize the first beat of each measure slightly by clapping a little louder on that beat. Practice looking at the notes in the example above while you clap and count. Keep your eyes moving. Don't stop at the barlines, they are just markers and do not have duration as do notes. Practice this example several times stopping each time at the end of the line. Each time you begin again, first count without clapping for a measure or two (you needn't read the notes when doing this). Then, when you feel ready, start to clap and read the quarter notes. Begin to understand, spatially, where each beat falls within a given measure, so you can pick out any individual beat without hesitation.
    1. Start again with the example in 4/4 and begin to count the beats ("one, two, three, four etc.). Use a metronome if necessary to keep a steady beat.
    2. Begin swinging your right arm (unless you are left-handed and feel more comfortable with the left arm) up and down in a small arc (maybe 20 degrees) from the elbow joint. Start with the arm in the "up" position; it will then fall. The bottom of each swing will be will occur at the same time you say the beat. Thus, in each measure your arm will fall to the bottom of the arc 4 times, once for each beat. Practice this awhile in each meter as you count the beats and look at the notes on the staff. Practice both with (if necessary) and without the metronome.
    3. The next step is critical and needs some explanation: Begin to substitute a neutral sound for the numbers you are counting. "Tah" is a good one, but you could use "loo", "bah", similar sounds ending in a vowel sound. Thus, for "one, two, three, four" you would substitute "tah, tah, tah, tah". You should now be swinging your arm, singing "tah" on a monotone pitch (don't make it too low or your energy level will drop and the practicing will lack motivation!!), and watching the notes. From time to time mentally remark which (what number) beat you are on.

      IMPORTANT POINT: It is important, from the outset, to understand that beats are merely points in time which divide up the time into regular segments of equal duration. The beat itself has no duration. The time that lasts between the beats can be filled either with sound (designated by "notes") or silence (designated by "rests"). This point is easily seen in practice: If you stop the sound right after singing "tah" on the first beat, and wait for the next beat to begin singing again, you are marking only the beginning and ending lines of demarcation of the beats. The actual time between beats is measured from the beginning of one beat (e.g. when the arm falls to the bottom point of the arc) to the beginnng of next beat (when the arm again reaches the bottom). (NB: The ending of the one beat is the same as--or occurs at the same time as-- the beginning of the next beat!!)

      The sound, "tah", which you are producing to mark the beginning and ending of the beat is saying: "There is some kind of note (whether a quarter note, an eighth note etc.) that is written at the point where the beat begins; the sound "tah" marks the beginning of that beat. In the 4/4 example you have been practicing, the first quarter note falls on the first beat of the measure and it's duration in sound lasts until the second beat starts. The second quarter note, similarly, falls on the second beat of the measure and it's sound lasts until the third beat, and so on. In order to properly perform what is written in this 4/4 example, you must keep the sound going when singing "tah" from beat to beat and articulate each new "tah" at the beginning of each new beat letting the "ah" sound continue throughout the duration of that beat until the next articulation. . This way you are simultaneously delineating the beginnings/endings of the beats and accurately performing the durations of the quarter notes. Since no "rests" are written in this example, there should be no pauses in sound until the end (except in those places where, if necessary, a breath must be taken without interupting the rhythmic flow). In fact "the end" does not occur until the beginning of a beat that is not actually marked with either a note or a rest. The performer must mentally see this ending as lying just beyond the end of the written piece and continue to sing "tah" until the "end" is reached as indicated by the last swing (begun at the time the last note has been initiated) of the arm to the bottom of it's arc.

    1. In the chart of relative note values above, you can see that the duration of the eighth note is exactly one half as long as that for a quarter note. This, of course, makes mathematical sense as 1/8 + 1/8 = 1/4. In simple music the eighth note usually falls (is written) either on the beat or mid-way between beats. Counting eighth notes simply involves adding the syllable "and" for the eighth note that falls mid-way between beats. If the eighth note falls on the beat it is counted with the appropriate beat number. See the following examples: (Note that each eighth note is written separately in the chart above, whereas in the examples immmediately below the eighth notes are grouped into pairs by the use of a barline across the top of the two notes. This form of notation is used so that it is easier to see the beat divisions. Sometimes you will see four or more eighths grouped together in such a fashion. This grouping does not change the duration of the notes being sung or played. Also be sure that no extra time is added between the groupings, which would make the second eighth note longer than the first. This will cause a distortion in the rhythm
    1. .
    1. To clap and count the 4/4 example begin by repeating the count: "one & two & three & four &" several times at a speed of about one note (that is, a spoken syllable) per half second. Do not look at the notes on the staff at first. Just get the rhythm going. If you are using a metronome, set it to around "120" for each eighth note. As with counting quarter notes, be sure to give a slight emphasis to the first eighth note of the first beat of each cycle of four beats.
    2. After you are counting steadily, begin to clap once with each syllable and repeat the four-beat cycle several times until you are counting and clapping smoothly.
    3. Finally, look at the notes on the staff and begin to follow them as you count and clap the eighth note rhythm pattern for four measures. Stop at the end of the line. Then repeat several times, first counting and clapping for a measure or two (to "establish" the beat and tempo before reading the notes).
    4. Repeat this process for the 3/4 and 2/4 meters, remembering to give adequate emphasis to the first beat of each measure. Practice changing from one meter to the other. Also practice changing the tempo. Try both faster and slower tempos. Practice both without and without a metronome.
    5. The silent beat with eighths--After you can clap or tap and count eighths with some assurance, begin to practice these meters with a silent beat and a neutral syllable ("tah" etc.). In the case of eighth notes, notice that just as the bottom the swing of your forearm coincides with the beat, the top of the swing coincides with the mid-point between beats. This point is exactly where the second eighth note of each two note group occurs. Practice timing the swing with the clicks of the metronome while counting "one & two & three & four &...". Each click now represents an eighth note. Once, you are confident of this coordination of up and down with your counting replace each spoken syllable with "tah". Finally, look at the notes on the staff and follow with your eyes as you continue to sing "tah" and swing your forearm up and down. Practice the other two meters in the same way, until you can switch from one meter to the other without hesitation.
    6. Now try setting the metronome to one "click" per beat instead of one click per half beat (as it has been set so far). Now the clicks will coincide only with the initial eighth note of each beat as you sing.
    7. Finally turn off the metronome and see if you can still sense its beating as an "lingering echo" that amounts to an internalization of the beat. This is what you are striving for. You can try hearing this echo as either two clicks per beat or one.
    1. Clap and Count--Start to count using the smallest note value (the eighth). This means that you will count "one & two & one & two & ...etc." instead of "one, two, one, two...etc." Set the metronome to about 108 for every syllable. After counting several measures without clapping, begin to clap the values of the notes as you look at them. You may want to clap just one measure several times in a row before proceeding to the next measure. When clapping the quarter notes the hands should remain together at least until the word "two" is spoken. As the word two is said the hands will separate in order to prepare to clap the next note. The goal is to count and clap all eight measures (without repeating any measure) straight through. The last measure is occupied by a half rest. A "rest" is written to indicate that no sound is to be played or sung. A half rest occupies as much time as a half note (see the chart of relative note values above), or in other words as much time as two quarter notes. The hands must come apart when you say "one" in the measure with the half rest, and you should continue to count until you say "one" again, (not written in the example) in order to feel the full time value of the last measure.

      As for the "dotted quarter notes" which are easily identified: the dot represents half the value of the note beside which it is placed. Thus, in the fifth measure of the example above, quarter note that has a dot beside it has an extra eighth note of time value added to it. You will sometimes see this measure written as follows:

      The curved line which connects the quarter note to the following eighth note is called a "tie". It ties the two notes in question together. The first note is played or sung and the second serves only to lengthen the amount of time the first note sounds. That is, the second note is not clapped, the hands merely remaining together for the additional time of the eighth note. (It may help to press the hands slightly together on the count of "two" in order to feel the beat at this point.) Thus, there should be only two claps in the measure. The two representations of the measure in question are, in this way, identical in their performance. The rhythmic patterns in measures 5, 6, and 7 may be seen more easily in their "tied" versions. Both versions are given below:

      You will notice that measure 7 has no dotted note, but presents similar if slightly different rhythmic problem. In fact, measure 7 is very much like measure 6. In both measures the second beat is not clapped, but the note just before it is clapped. This results in what is known as "sycopation". In this example, a "weak" part of the beat is accentuated by having the strong part of the beat held over by being tied to the weak one before it. In the case of the 2/4 meter, the weak parts of the beats are those eighth notes which occur on "&", while the strong parts of the beat are the notes that fall on "one" or "two". In measure 7 (see the "tied version), a slight accent is properly felt on the clap for the "1&" eighth note preceding the "2" eighth note which is tied to it. Again, the hands should be lightly pressed together on "two" to feel "the beat". This counter-action of accents results in the feeling of syncopation. The only differnce between measures 6 and 7 is that the last eighth note is clapped in measure 7, whereas it is not clapped in measure 6. Though this results in a feeling of syncopation in both measures, the feeling is stronger in measure 7 because a weak part of the beat is again clapped on "2&". This tends to highlight the perception that the strong "2" was not clapped.

      Another suggestion which can help to keep track of the beats occur is to make small vertical "hash" marks above the staff where they occur. In the 2/4 example this would be above those places marked "1" and "2". This visual aid will help you follow the rhythms more easily until you are familiar with the various rhythmic patterns, which in reality are not that many.

    2. Using a Silent Beat and Singing "Tah"--The second step in practicing the eight measure example is to use the silent beat and to sing the "tah" syllable instead of clapping. If necessary, review the silent beat skills previously detailed for the practice of quarter and eighth notes.
    3. As you begin to count "one & two &...etc.", start to swing your arm up and down as previously. When you are ready, begin to sing "tah" for the notes as they are written, holding the sound until the next note demands another articulation of "t" in "tah". Take breaths at appropriate places in order to keep the rhythms going. The dotted quarter note in measure 5 will require a down swing, an up swing, and another down swing before the eighth note (denoted by the next up swing) is sung. The attention must be split somewhat between the notes on the staff and the awareness of the swinging arm, which tells you which beat (or half beat) you are on. Most of your attention is normally devoted to looking at the notes on the staff. But take the effort to be aware of the arm movement, as this will keep you on track rhythmically. After a while, the feeling for the beat will be more internalized and automatic. By that time you will not need to consciously split your attention like this. Do this exercise both with and without the metronome. You can set the metronome to beat for the eighth notes at first, then for the quarter notes only.

Learning the Note Names on the Piano

Learning the Note Names on the Staff

    1. Learning to play on the piano and sing 6-8 of the 12 major diatonic scales is the first task after one has gained some fluency with note names. The sound of the major scale is what most people associate with the sung syllables: "do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti, do". You can start to sing this scale on any given pitch. What stays constant is the spacing between the notes. This spacing gives the characteristic sound of the major scale. Likewise, you can start to play this scale on any note of your choosing at the piano. As long as the pattern of spacing between the notes remains the same for each scale, all the scales will sound similar to each other, just higher or lower in pitch. Before discussing this pattern in detail, I would suggest that you sit down at a keyboard and place your right thumb on the note "C". Use the C which is at the lower part of your vocal range and center yourself at the keyboard accordingly. With the thumb(1), index finger(2) and middle finger(3), play the notes C, D, E or do, re, mi in the scale beginning on "C". Next turn your thumb under the 3rd (middle) finger and continue to play the remaining notes F, G, A, B, C with the respective fingers--thumb(1), index finger(2), middle finger(3), ring finger(4) and little finger(5). You have just played an ascending octave of the C major scale.

      Repeat this several times to get used to the finger pattern. Your goal is to play the scale at a rate of about one note per half second (set the metronome to 120 if you decide to use it to keep the beat). After you can do this in an smooth and even manner, try coming down the scale (without stopping and without repeating the higher "C" which should be played just once. Thus: "do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti, do, ti, la, so, fa, mi, re, do" or "1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1" or "C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C, B, A, G, F, E, D, C". Once you can play the scale evenly up and down without stopping at a rate of 1/2 second or so per note, start to sing, as you are playing, one of the three verbalizations just listed. Watch the keys closely as you are playing, with the idea of memorizing the pattern of black and white notes surrounding the white keys that you are actually striking. This is the pattern for the C Major Scale. Try all three ways of singing the scale while accompanying yourself at the piano. The number of times you play each version depends on how soon you reach the goal of fluency at the rate of a half second per note. (Note: you can, of course use your left hand instead of the right, in which case the fingering is reversed: i.e. "5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 3, 2, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5").

    2. The next step is to close your eyes and play and sing the scale again. Can you still see the after-image of the pattern of the scale? Practice in the same manner as above until you acheive the half second per note rate in each version of singing.
    3. Next play the scale on a table top or in the air again while singing and visualizing the pattern of notes. Repeat as necessary for fluency.
    4. The last step in learning the scale of C Major is to sing the scale while visualizing it, but without playing it in any way. When you can do this, you have succeeded in imprinting the "look" of the C Major scale in your memory. This is a logical place to stop and assimilate your work before going on. Of course these four initial steps many take two or three days to accomplish, but if done with consistency, regularity and concentration, learning new scales will become easier and easier and take less and less time and effort.
    5. The process of learning scales other than C Major involves adding black notes. A digression into SCALE THEORY and it's application to the keyboard is necessary at this point:
    6. Intervals are defined as the difference in pitch (frequency) between two notes. The smallest distance that is traditionally able to be notated on the staff as well as to be played on the piano is called a half-tone or half-step. This is the basic unit, multiples of which make up all the other intervals. Two half-tones make up a whole tone. The difference between a whole-tone and a half-tone is not readily seen on the staff, since the literal drawn distance from any given line to the next space is always the same. Thus, when a note is drawn on a given line and another note is drawn on a space next to it, either up or down, it is impossible to tell (unless you are taught the rules) whether the interval denoted is a whole-tone or a half-tone.

      On the piano, however, one can, with a little attention, readily see the difference between whole and half tones. On the piano, THE HALF-TONE IS PLAYED BY GOING FROM ANY KEY TO THE NEXT ADJACENT KEY, UP OR DOWN. What this means is that there are a total of THREE different "looks" as to how a half-tone might appear on the piano:

      1. Going from a white key to the next adjacent (without a black key in between) white key. (By the way, this "look" occurs only between the notes F-E and B-C on the keyboard.
      2. Going from a white key up (to the right) to the adjacent black key.
      3. Going from a white key down (to the left) to the adjacent black key.

      Similarly, on the piano, THE WHOLE-TONE IS PLAYED BY GOING UP OR DOWN TWO HALF-STEPS FROM ANY STARTING KEY. This results in a total of FOUR different "looks" as to how a whole-tone might appear on the piano.
      1. Going from a white key to a white key (e.g. C to D) with a black key in between.
      2. Going from a black key to a black key (e.g. C-sharp to D-sharp) with a white key in between.
      3. Going from a white key up to a black key with a white key in between.
      4. Going from a white key down to a black key with a white key in between.

      From this meager beginning one can, with a little practice, see the various distances between the intervals on the piano.

      As you play the C Major scale, you are playing a pattern of intervals, namely: C to D (a whole-tone); D to E (a whole-tone); E to F (a half-tone); F to G (a whole-tone); G to A (a whole-tone); A to B (a whole-tone); and B to C (a half-tone). This pattern of whole and half tones remains the same for any major scale and that is why all major scales sound "the same" (just higher or lower in pitch).

      Thus, if you wished to start to play a major scale on the key of G, for instance, you would use the "whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half" pattern to determine which notes to play. You would arrive at the following letter names: G, A, B, C, D, E, F-sharp(#), G. As you can easily see, in order to preserve the half-tone interval from the seventh to the eighth keys (B to C in the scale of C major) you must use the F#. All the other keys, though white, happen to fall into the Major Scale pattern without alteration. Another way of stating the pattern is to say that all of the intervals are whole-tones except two: those between the 3rd and 4th notes (3-4) and between the 7th and 8th notes (7-8) of the scale. These two intervals are half-tones.

    7. What follows is a schematic summary of the material above.

      The diatonic major scale is a pattern of pitches which remains the same for each major scale. The following diagram depicts the relationships between each of the tones of the major scale, whether the scale is a C major scale (i.e. a major scale starting on the note C), a D major scale, an E-flat major scale etc. Memorize this pattern and practice playing and singing it until it is a deeply ingrained aural pattern. Also memorize the three symbolic ways of representing the pattern. Note especially the appearance of the half step between scale degrees 3 and 4 and 7 and 8.

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

     

    do

    re

    mi

    fa

    so

    la

    ti

    do

    ti

    la

    so

    fa

    mi

    re

    do


    Examples: The Major Scales of C, G and F (F uses a B-flat(b))

    C

    D

    E

    F

    G

    A

    B

    C

    B

    A

    G

    F

    E

    D

    C

    F

    G

    A

    Bb

    C

    D

    E

    F

    E

    D

    C

    Bb

    A

    G

    F

    G

    A

    B

    C

    D

    E

    F#

    G

    F#

    E

    D

    C

    B

    A

    G

  1. The process for learning to play and sing scales other than C Major, is exactly the same as for that first scale. The order in which to learn the scales proceeds according to a pattern called the Circle of Fifths. Simply stated (at least for the "sharp" scales) the next scale to learn always starts on the fifth note of the previous scale. For example. The fifth note in the scale of C is G. Therefore, G Major is the next scale to add to your repetoire. Going further, D is the fifth note of the G scale so D Major is the next scale to practice. In this way each scale will have one new sharp added and that additional sharp will always be the 7th note of the new scale. Remember to figure out the note pattern of a given scale by using the "whole whole half whole whole whole half" template of intervals.

    For scales which add flats, instead of sharps, you begin the new scale on the 4th note of the previous scale. For example, the 4th note of the C scale is F, so the new scale will be F Major, which has one flat. The 4th note of the F scale is Bb, so the next scale will be Bb Major.

    A good first level goal is to learn all the scales having up to 3 sharps and 3 flats for a total of seven scales. Learn them in this order: C, G, F, D, Bb, A, Eb. In this fashion you will learn the scales in the order which increases the sharps or flats by one for each two scales learned other than C Major, which, course has no sharps or flats.

  2. A note on fingering: The fingering for the scales of G, D, and A is exactly the same as for C. The fingering for F Major is 1(thumb)-2-3-4 turn thumb under and continue with 1-2-3-4. The fingering for Bb is 2-1(thumb under)-2-3-1-2-3-4. The fingering for Eb is 2-1-2-3-4-1-2-3. The idea is to avoid using the thumb on the black keys when playing scales because it is awkward to turn the hand under or over a thumb on a black key. Comfort and ease of playing is critical in establishing the nerve pathways which will allow for ease in imagining how the scales "look" away from the piano.

Superimposing the Keyboard Scales Onto the Staff

    1. Beginning again with the scale of C Major, the first step is to write the scale of C Major on staff paper (or you may own a book which has the scales written, though the exercise of writing them on your own is helpful). Again begin with the scale as written in your own vocal range, whether with a treble or bass clef.

      Notice that the staff is metered (4/4). It is always helpful to have a sense of meter when playing scales. This helps to keep the playing rhythmically smooth and even. The first several times you do the following instructions you may want to count 1-2-3-4-1-2-3-4...etc. Granted this may be too much to do at the beginning but try it after your first couple of attempts.

    2. Now while looking at the notes on the staff, play the C Major scale as you did when learning to play the scale for the first time. Instead of looking at the keyboard, however, you are now looking at the staff and carrying a mental picture of the keyboard somewhere else in your mind. This allows you to play and not lose your place on the keyboard while your eyes are constantly focusing on the staff. Do not look down at your hands as this will only serve confuse you. It is a great temptation to keep looking down and then back up, but this constant re-focusing actually impedes your progress, so make every effort to keep your eyes focussed on the staff. This cannot be emphasized enough.

      At the same time you are thus, learning to associate the look of the note on the staff with the note on the keyboard. Be sure you are playing the note on keyboard that exactly corresponds to the note on the staff. For example, if you play middle C, make sure you're looking at middle middle C on the staff.

    3. Once you are able to track the notes easily with your eyes while playing the notes on the keyboard, begin to sing the degree numbers of the tones of the scale. Then the solfege syllables and then the letter names. These three associations are the same ones you sang when learning to play the scale. They must now be transferred to the locations on the staff, within the context of each different scale. Learn one scale at a time.
    4. After you feel comfortable playing and singing any given scale, it is time to wean yourself from the keyboard, as before when learning to playing the scales by touch alone. Take the sheet of paper with the given scale and see if you can sing the notes while visualzing the keyboard. You may want to finger the scale in the air or on a table top first. But eventually you will just sing the scale. Ultimately you will want to "sing" the scale mentally without vocalizing. You may even want to mentally visualize the notes without using the written scale. This is the iron test of your ability to combine all the skills you have learned into one simple act: Hearing the scale as you sing it mentally while visualizing the staff and keyboard either simultaneously or alternately. Try using the three different ways of singing: letters, numbers, solfege. Solfege, for our purposes, is of course, the most vital way of doing this.
    5. What you have learn thus far is to read and sing the major scale (in however many keys) sequentially. Music does have stepwise (or scalewise) passages, but frequently the notes jump around so it is important to be able to jump at random from one note in a scale to another that might be a couple or even many steps away. This brings us to the topic of learning the sights and sounds of the intervals that are found within the major scale. Do not wait to learn all the scales before going on to study these intervalic relationships as described in the next section. Again begin interval training with those scales you know sequentially while continuing to learn new keys as above.

Learning the Sounds of the Intervals

      Major 2nd  do-re (1-2):             Oh Susanah ("Oh, I Come from...")
      	                   re-do (2-1):	
      		 
      Major 3rd  do-mi (1-3):             Oh, When the Saints...,
                                                         Michael, Row the Boat Ashore
      	                  mi-do (3-1):	            Swing Low Sweet Chariot,
      			                                                Lou, Lou, Skip to My Lou
      
      Minor 3rd        do-me*:	            Greensleeves ("Alas, My Love")
      	                          me-do:		
      		 
      Perfect	      do-fa (1-4);             Hineh Ma Tov (1-4-4-4 minor)
      4th			                                          Good King Wenceslas (Ending:"Fu-u-el")
      			                                               The very beginning of Nutcraker Suite.
      
      Perfect	     do-so (1-5):              Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star
      5th
      	                 so-do (5-1):	             Eerie Canal, ("I had a mule")
      
      Major 6th  do-la (1-6):             Momma's Little Baby Loves Shortnin' Bread
      	                  la-do (6-1):             Nobody Knows the Trouble I Seen
                                                        [really mi-so]
      
      Major 7th   do-ti (1-7):             Bali High (1-(8)-7), The Pajama Game
      
      Octave	      do-do (1-8):            Somewhere Over the Rainbow
      
      
      
      Desending Intervals (and their inverses):
      
      Minor 2nd  do-ti (1-7):            Joy to the World, Ave Maria
      	                   ti-do (7-1):            Fascination (ti-do-mi-so-do[high])
      
      Minor 3rd  do-la (1-6):            Momma's Little Baby (second part)
                                                       "Put on the skillet": do-do-la-so...)
      	                   la-do (6-1):	          The Wave (So close your eyes)
      
      Perfect	       do-so (1-5)            Who Can Retell (do-do-so-do...), 
      4th                                            The Dodgers Pep Song,
                                                       "Shave and a haircut, two bits"
      	                   so-do (5-1):          Hark, the Herald Angels Sing
                                                       Red River Valley ("From this valley...")
      			                                              Auld Lang Syne ("Should auld...")
      Perfect	        do-fa (1-4):			 
      5th
      	                    fa-do (4-1):
      
      Minor 6th    do-mi (1-3):
      	                    mi-do (3-1):         Excerpt: Schubert's "Rosamunde"
      			                                              Overture (mi-do-so, mi-do-so)
      
      Minor 7th     do-re (1-2):
      	                     re-do (2-1):
    Getting a Feel for the Key or "DO" of a Song
Singing Simple Musical Notation